Friday, November 30, 2007


The cotton farms of Country Q became so productive that the market could not absorb all that they produced. Consequently, cotton prices fell. The government tried to boost cotton prices by offering farmers who took 25 percent of their cotton acreage out of production direct support payments up to a specified maximum per farm.

The government’s program, if successful, will not be a net burden on the budget. Which of the following, if true, is the best basis for an explanation of how this could be so?

(A) Depressed cotton prices meant operating losses for cotton farms, and the government lost revenue from taxes on farm profits.

(B) Cotton production in several counties other than Q declined slightly the year that the support-payment program went into effect in Q.

(C) The first year that the support-payment program was in effect, cotton acreage in Q was 5% below its level in the base year for the program.

(D) The specified maximum per farm meant that for very large cotton farms the support payments were less per acre for those acres that were withdrawn from production than they were for smaller farms.A

(E) Farmers who wished to qualify for support payments could not use the cotton acreage that was withdrawn from production to grow any other crop.

Advertisement: The world’s best coffee beans come from Colombia. The more Colombian beans in a blend of coffee, the better the blend, and no company purchases more Colombian beans than Kreemo Coffee, Inc. So it only stands to reason that if you buy a can of Kreemo’s coffee, you’re buying the best blended coffee available today.

The reasoning of the argument in the advertisement is flawed because it overlooks the possibility that

(A) the equipment used by Kreemo to blend and package its coffee is no different from that used by most other coffee producers

(B) not all of Kreemo’s competitors use Colombian coffee beans in the blends of coffee they sell

(C) Kreemo sells more coffee than does any other company

(D) Kreemo’s coffee is the most expensive blended coffee available todayC

(E) the best unblended coffee is better than the best blended coffee

Thursday, November 29, 2007

cr 1

Demographers doing research for an international economics newsletter claim that the average per capita income in the country of Kuptala is substantially lower than that in the country of Bahlton. They also claim, however, that whereas poverty is relatively rare in Kuptala, over half the population of Bahlton lives in extreme poverty. At least one of the demographers’ claims must, therefore, be wrong.

The argument above is most vulnerable to which of the following criticisms?

(A) It rejects an empirical claim about the average per capita incomes in the two countries without making any attempt to discredit that claim by offering additional economic evidence.

(B) It treats the vague term “poverty” as though it had a precise and universally accepted meaning.

(C) It overlooks the possibility that the number of people in the two countries who live in poverty could be the same even though the percentages of the two populations that live in poverty differ markedly.

(D) It fails to show that wealth and poverty have the same social significance in Kuptala as in Bahlton.E

(E) It does not consider the possibility that incomes in Kuptala, unlike those in Bahlton, might all be very close to the country’s average per capita income.

explaination for criminals SC

expln for 1980's SC

Wednesday, November 28, 2007


1. In the 1980’s the rate of increase of the minority population of the United States was nearly twice as fast as the 1970’s.

(A) twice as fast as

(B) twice as fast as it was in

(C) twice what it was in

(D) two times faster than that ofC

(E) two times greater than


1. In the last few years, the number of convicted criminals given community service sentences, which allow the criminals to remain unconfined while they perform specific jobs benefiting the public, have risen dramatically.

(A) sentences, which allow the criminals to remain unconfined while they perform specific jobs benefiting the public, have

(B) sentences, performing specific jobs that benefit the public while being allowed to remain unconfined, have

(C) sentences, performing specific jobs beneficial to the public while they are allowed to remain unconfined, have

(D) sentences which allow them to remain unconfined in their performing of specific jobs beneficial to the public hasE

(E) sentences allowing them to remain unconfined while performing specific jobs that benefit the public has

Tuesday, November 27, 2007


List of verbs that can only have gerunds after them
acknowledge | admit | adore | anticipate | appreciate | avoid |
celebrate | confess | contemplate
delay | deny | describe | detest | discuss | dislike | dread | endure |
fancy | finish | imagine | involve | keep | justify | mention | mind | miss


List of verbs normally followed by Infinitives
afford | agree | appear | arrange | ask | attempt | care | choose |
claim | come | consent
dare | decide | demand | deserve | determine | elect | endeavour |
expect | fail | get | guarentee
hate | help | hesitate | hope | hurry | incline | intend | learn | long |
manage | mean | need
offer | plan | prepare | pretend | promise | refuse | resolve | say |
seem | tend | threaten | want | wish


Notice the usage of modals in the following sentences:
I pay my taxes. General declaration of fact. Paying taxes is
something I normally do.
I can pay my taxes. Expresses ability. I have the means (funds) to
I might pay my taxes. Expresses possibility, but not certainty. Maybe
I will pay; maybe I won’t.
I will pay my taxes. Expresses future intent. I resolve to do it at
some later time.
I should pay my taxes. Expresses mild obligation. It is required, and I
expect to comply.
I could pay my taxes. Expresses possibility. If I have nothing else to
do with the money, I might pay taxes.
I would pay my taxes. (In this case), expresses reservation. If I had
the money (but I don’t).…
I must pay my taxes. Expresses strong obligation. I am required
and have to comply.


Because v/s. In That: When ETS puts ‘because’ and ‘in that’ in a sentence, more
often than not, ‘in that’ would be correct. ‘In that qualifies’ the previous
sentence, while ‘because’ is just used to show a simple causal relationship.
Teratomas are unusual forms of cancer because they are
composed of tissues such as tooth and bone not normally found in the
organ in which the tumor appears.
A. because they are composed of tissues such as tooth and bone
B. because they are composed of tissues like tooth and bone that are
C. because they are composed of tissues, like tooth and bone, tissues
D. in that their composition , tissues such as tooth and bone, is
E. in that they are composed of tissues such as tooth and bone, tissues
E is the correct answer.


Like v/s. As: Like is used to express similarity. It is normally used to show similarity
between two nouns e.g. Lemons are like limes.
As on the other hand would normally compare two clauses and not two nouns.
E.g. He looks as if he is drunk.
Such As: It is normally used to give examples. Compare the two sentences ‘I
want you to buy fruits like lemons and limes’. However, if you want lemons and
limes, you would say that ‘I want you to buy fruits such as lemons and limes’. The
earlier sentence means you don’t want lemons and limes, but fruits like those.
Example of ‘Like v/s. As’
The ordinance is intended to force householders to separate such hazardous waste like
pesticides, batteries, fertilizers, and oil-based paints from the general stream of
household trash.
(A) to separate such hazardous waste like
(B) that they should separate such hazardous waste like
(C) separating such hazardous wastes as
(D) that they should separate such hazardous wastes as
(E) to separate such hazardous wastes as
E is the correct answer.


11) Estimated to be (Estimated at is incorrect)
12) Believe X to be Y
13) Acclaimed as is the correct idiom (Acclaimed to be is wrong)
14) Distinguish between X and Y (Distinguish X from Y is incorrect)
15) In an attempt to (gain control)
16) Worried about (When talking about someone’s condition)
17) Attempt to ‘do something’ (Attempt at doing is incorrect).
18) Both X and Y (Both X as well as Y is incorrect) Both at X and at Y is correct. Both on
X or on Y is correct. Both should always have parallel forms associated to it.
Similarly, ‘Neither… nor’ should have parallel forms associated to it.
19) Adverb twice cannot be an object of proposition ‘by’.
‘Increase by twice’ is incorrect; ‘doubled’ is correct
20) So X as to be Y (So unreal as to be true)
21) As much as (Republicans are involved as much as Democrats).
22) X prohibits Y from
23) x forbids y to do z
x prohibits y from doing z.
The new contract forbids a strike by the transportation union


Idioms to Remember
1) To exchange X for Y (exchange X with Y or any other form is incorrect)
2) Different from one another (Different one from the other is wrong)
3) X is unknown, nor it is known – is a correct idiom (Neither is not required) It is not
that nor would always be preceded by a neither
4) To ratify (At ratifying is incorrect) An attempt to ratify is the correct use
5) Allergy to (Allergy of, allergy for are incorrect)
6) To try to fix is the right idiom (to try and fix is incorrect)
7) Just as… So too
8) X is different from Y (different than Y is incorrect)
9) Same as to Y
e.g Gravity will apply the same to an airplane flying in air as to a ship floating on
10) From X to Y (Grow from 2 million to 3 billion) (From X up to Y is wrong)